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  • ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    To understand this simple reaction try to convert Acetone into t-butyl alcohol. Organometalic nucleophile usage Examples of organometallic reagent: R-Li , Grignard reagent. As you see you can add what ever group you need R to the carbonyl by adding it to lithium which make it suitable nucleophile (HOMO) to attack carbonyl group (LUMO). Mechanism:…

  • ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    To understand this simple reaction try to convert Acetone into t-butyl alcohol. Organometalic nucleophile usage Examples of organometallic reagent: R-Li , Grignard reagent. As you see you can add what ever group you need R to the carbonyl by adding it to lithium which make it suitable nucleophile (HOMO) to attack carbonyl group (LUMO). Mechanism:…

  • Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketones

    Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketones

    The source of hydrides we use is sodium borohydire (NaBH4 ) and Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) Carbonyl group is Electrophile which can accepts electrons to read more about how carbonyl is electerophile click here. Adlehyde and Ketones react with hydride forming alcohols. The mechanism: Take care the curved arrw not from negative bromide but from…

  • Addition of nucleophile to Aldehydes and Ketones

    Addition of nucleophile to Aldehydes and Ketones

    Nucleophile is the molecule with one ore more lone pairs or have negative charge. Cyanide (CN−) is potent nucleophile that can attake carbonyl group forming cyanohydrin In cyanide carbon bears the negative charge which make it the HOMO suitable for attaking electrophile to revise nucleophile read this. About carbonyl which is electrophile E+ it has…

  • Nucleophilic substitution reaction of saturated carbon

    Nucleophilic substitution reaction of saturated carbon

    As we see The Cl– group has been replaced by OH–. This a nucleophilic substitution reaction the nucleophile OH– attacked the E+ which is the carbon bonded to halogen. The reaction mechanism may be one of two which are called SN1 and SN2. The Differences between SN1 and SN2: Kinetic overview: SN1 SN2 It is…

  • Basics of organic chemistry reactions mechanism

    Basics of organic chemistry reactions mechanism

    What is chemical reaction mechanism? It is the detailed processes by which chemical substances are transformed into other substances. As in Inorganic compounds the chemical reactions occur as: The opposite charged reagents attract each other, an example: A solution contains Ag+ and other contains Cl– so these ions attract each other and combine fromg the…

  • Pressure questions

    Pressure questions

    Calculate the partial pressure of oxygen and hydrogen in a mixture of 35.0 g of oxygen gas and 11.5 g of hydrogen gas in a 2.0 L container at 35F? Soln. number of moles of O2 = 35/32 = 1.1 mole number of moles of H2 = 11.5/2 = 5.75 mole total number of moles…

  • Gas effusion rate

    Gas effusion rate

    An unknown has a rate of effusion that is 4 times slower than the rate of H2 . What is the identity of this gas? Selecto one: Soln. = Effusion rate of H2 = 4 rate of unkown = = = takign the square of both sides: = M.wt = 32 Then it is O2…

  • Effusion question

    Effusion question

    The rate of Effusion of Ne gas through a porous barrier is observed to be 2.41 x 10-4 mol/hunder the same conditions, the rate of effusion of Xe gas would be ……………. mol/h Soln. M.wt of Ne = 10.18 g/mol M.wt of Xe = 131.29 g/mol = = 3.59 = 3.59 R(Xe) = = 6.71…

  • Gas effusion rate

    Gas effusion rate

    What will be the ratio of the rate effusion of carbon dioxide to the rate of effusion of nitrogen gas?Soln. By using Graham’s effusion rate law: M.wt CO2 = 44 g/mol M.wt N2 = 28 g/mol = = = 0.798 The question on chegg

  • Derivation of kinetic gas equation

    Derivation of kinetic gas equation

    Consider a certain mass of gas enclosed in a cubic box at a fixed temperature. Suppose that:                         the length of each side of the box = cm                         the total number of…

  • Kinetic Molecular Theory

    Kinetic Molecular Theory

    Maxwell and Boltzmann (1859) developed a mathematical theory to explain the behaviour ofgases and the gas laws. It is based on the fundamental concept that a gas is made of a large numberof molecules in perpetual motion. Hence the theory is called the kinetic molecular theory or simplythe kinetic theory of gases (The word kinetic…

  • Ideal gas law

    Ideal gas law

    As we studied in: Boyle’s Law: V∝ Charle’s Law: V∝ T Avogadro’s Law: V ∝ n by combining the three laws: V ∝ The ideal gas law: It is law which is applied to all gases that exhibit ideal behaviour and obey the gas laws perfectly. It states that: the volume of a given amount of…

  • Dalton’s law of partial pressure

    Dalton’s law of partial pressure

    John Dalton visualised that in a mixture of gases, each component gas exerted a pressure as if it were alone in the container. The pressure of each gas in mixture is called partial pressure. Dalton’s law of partial pressure: It states that : the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the…

  • Graham’s diffusion law

    Graham’s diffusion law

    Lighter molecules move faster than the heavier one. According to this concept Graham’s could reach his law ,but at first we should to differentiate between to terms Diffusion and Effusion). Diffusion: process resulting from random motion of molecules by which there is a net flow of matter from a region of high concentration to a…

  • Charle’s law

    Charle’s law

    When the volume of gas is changed from …….. L to 4.5 L, the temperature will change from 38.1°C to 15 °C. The link: https://www.chegg.com/homework-help/questions-and-answers/volume-gas-changed-l-450-l-temperature-change-381-degree-c-150-degree-c-q22533187 Soln. We need to make a relation between the volume and temp. of the gas. By using Charle’s law:  

  • Combined gas law

    Combined gas law

    As we talked previously Charle’s law and Boyle’s law. Charle’s law: Boyle’s law: Therefore: The combined law can be stated as: for a fixed mass of gas, the volume is directly proportionalto kelvin temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure. The combined law: If the pressure, volume or temperature is changed from then:  

  • Gay Lussac’s Law (Pressure – temp. law)

    Gay Lussac’s Law (Pressure – temp. law)

    It is called pressure law. It is the same of charle’s but, instead of relation between volume and temperature it becomes between pressure and temperature at constant volume this time. It states that: at constant volume, the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportionalto the Kelvin temperature or absolute temperature. P∝ T…

  • Boyle’s Law

    Boyle’s Law

    Boyle’s law states that at constant Temperature, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversly proportional to the pressure. V∝ (at const. T) V: Volume, T: Temperature, P: pressure V = k      (k is constant) PV = const. so we can conclude that the if we changed the pressure of gas…

  • Carle’s Law

    Carle’s Law

    Charle’s law states that at constant pressure, the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of absolute temperature.   V∝ T (at const. P) V: Volume, T: Temperature, P: pressure V = k T     (k is constant) so we can conclude that the if we changed the…

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