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Kinetic Molecular Theory

Maxwell and Boltzmann (1859) developed a mathematical theory to explain the behaviour of
gases and the gas laws. It is based on the fundamental concept that a gas is made of a large number
of molecules in perpetual motion. Hence the theory is called the kinetic molecular theory or simply
the kinetic theory of gases (The word kinetic implies motion). The kinetic theory makes the following
assumptions.

Assumptions of Kinetic Molecular theory:

  1. A gas consists of extremely small discrete (very small) particles called molecules dispersed throughout the container.
  2. The actual volume of the molecules is negligible compared to the volume of container.

3. Gas molecules are in random motion with high velocity. Molecules move in straight lines and change direction upon collision with container or with other molecules.

4. The distance between molecules is very large so we assume that the attraction forces (van der waal) between molecules don’t exist. This mean gasa molecules can move freely independently of each other.

5. Collisions are perfectly elastic. Hence, there is no loss of kinetic energy of a molecule dusion collision. Simply we can say molecules collide to each other without gaining or losing energy.

6. The pressure of a gas is caused by hitting the gas molecules on the wall of the container.

7. The avereage kinetic energy of the gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (kelvin temperature). This means that that the avereage kinetic energy of gases molecules is the same at the same temperature.

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