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  • ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    To understand this simple reaction try to convert Acetone into t-butyl alcohol. Organometalic nucleophile usage Examples of organometallic reagent: R-Li , Grignard reagent. As you see you can add what ever group you need R to the carbonyl by adding it to lithium which make it suitable nucleophile (HOMO) to attack carbonyl group (LUMO). Mechanism:…

  • ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    ِFormation of New C-C for Aldhydes and ketones

    To understand this simple reaction try to convert Acetone into t-butyl alcohol. Organometalic nucleophile usage Examples of organometallic reagent: R-Li , Grignard reagent. As you see you can add what ever group you need R to the carbonyl by adding it to lithium which make it suitable nucleophile (HOMO) to attack carbonyl group (LUMO). Mechanism:…

  • Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketones

    Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketones

    The source of hydrides we use is sodium borohydire (NaBH4 ) and Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) Carbonyl group is Electrophile which can accepts electrons to read more about how carbonyl is electerophile click here. Adlehyde and Ketones react with hydride forming alcohols. The mechanism: Take care the curved arrw not from negative bromide but from…

  • Addition of nucleophile to Aldehydes and Ketones

    Addition of nucleophile to Aldehydes and Ketones

    Nucleophile is the molecule with one ore more lone pairs or have negative charge. Cyanide (CN−) is potent nucleophile that can attake carbonyl group forming cyanohydrin In cyanide carbon bears the negative charge which make it the HOMO suitable for attaking electrophile to revise nucleophile read this. About carbonyl which is electrophile E+ it has…

  • Nucleophilic substitution reaction of saturated carbon

    Nucleophilic substitution reaction of saturated carbon

    As we see The Cl– group has been replaced by OH–. This a nucleophilic substitution reaction the nucleophile OH– attacked the E+ which is the carbon bonded to halogen. The reaction mechanism may be one of two which are called SN1 and SN2. The Differences between SN1 and SN2: Kinetic overview: SN1 SN2 It is…

  • Basics of organic chemistry reactions mechanism

    Basics of organic chemistry reactions mechanism

    What is chemical reaction mechanism? It is the detailed processes by which chemical substances are transformed into other substances. As in Inorganic compounds the chemical reactions occur as: The opposite charged reagents attract each other, an example: A solution contains Ag+ and other contains Cl– so these ions attract each other and combine fromg the…

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